SAP S4HANA Finance & Accounting Data Model

SAP S4HANA Finance & Accounting Data Model

Data Model in SAP S/4HANA
  • Data model organizes & standardizeselements of datathrough logical relationships between them.
  • Data model refers to the structure of tableswhere all data of SAP applications is stored
  • Whenever a user enters any type of data, database tables are updated
  • In SAP S/4HANA, data model can be structured as following
    • Configuration data
    • Master data
    • Transaction data
  • Configuration data in SAP S/4HANA
    • All the configurations which are carried out in SAP S/4HANA are stored in pre-defined tables
    • During data processing, these configuration elements are read fromdatabase tablesand used for data processing
    • Examples of configuration tables *Company code related tableswhich includes all information related to legal entities configured *Plant related tableswhich provides information related to manufacturing locations, sales locations, corporate offices, etc.
      • Currencies used for financial transactions
      • Unit of measurement used in transactions where quantity is recorded
    Master data in SAP S/4HANA
    • Master data created in SAP S/4HANA is stored in pre-defined tables
    • During data processing, these master data elements are read from database tables and used for data processing
    • Examples of master data tables
      • Business partnersuch as customer, vendor, banks
      • Material master which depicts the product sold, procured
      • General ledger master which represents a specific expense item, revenue item or an asset, liability such as electricity expense

    Transaction data in SAP S/4HANA

    • Transaction data created in SAP S/4HANA are stored in pre-defined tables.For many transactions, SAP S/4HANA has organized the data as header tables and line item tables
    • During transaction processing, master data, configuration data and existing transaction data isread and used for processingof same.
    • In earlier versions of SAP S/4HANA, transaction data was aggregated and stored in different tables. The purpose of aggregated data is faster processing during periodic processing and for the purpose of reporting.
    • Examples of transaction tables
      • Financial documents
      • Material movements
      • Sales orders
    Update of database tables
    • A record in a database table can be displayed, edited or a new record can be inserted
    • Each data set is saved in a single or in multiple tables. It implies that when a data is created, it may be updating multiple tables at the same time
    • It is possible to definecustom tables.Program needs to be written to update those tables either manually or by way of some logic
    • All processing logic and validations are performed via ABAP programs during update of data into tables
    A view of database tables
    • SAP also provides structure or view. A structure or view does not store data but reads the data from tables where the data is stored
    • A view can be created todisplay data from multiple tables and can process datarelated to configuration data, master data and transaction data.
    • Examples of view
      • Display material master list
      • Aggregate of sales per product
      • Aggregated of expense items for the year
      • Display list of purchase orders
    Data Model Overview
    • The key changes for the finance data model are:
      • New table ACDOCA for Universal Journal
      • Merger of FICO, account-based COPAML, and AA in Universal Journal (ACDOCA)
      • Conversion of aggregate and index tables into compatibility views related to GL/ AR/ AP/ CO/ AA/ ML to minimize the disruption in custom objects
      • New tables for statistical and plan values in asset accounting
      • New tables for bank account management
      • New tables for material ledger/ actual costing
      • New planning table, ACDOCP
      • Inventory valuation-related table fields (xBEW and xBEWH) are converted into views
      • Certain finance related view types have been changed or replaced with ABAP code
    • Custom objects need adjustment during S/4HANA conversion in accordance to data model changes
    Data model – GL posting to Universal Journal
    • New table ACDOCA for financial data
    • Data from FI, AA, CO, Acct based COPA, ML merged into ACDOCA
    • No change in costing based COPA tables
    • Replaces FAGLFLEXABSEG
    • Compatibility views have been created for these replaced tables and have a different name e.g. FAAV_ANEA
    • Additional fields added for quantities/ currencies
    • Possible to extend ACDOCA with custom fields
    • Possible to delete obsolete tables as per OSS note 2190137
    Data model – Universal Journal

    Data model – Universal Journal

    Data model – Universal Journal

    All FI postings and CO postings that has value type 4 will flow into ACDOCA that is universal journal. All CO postings except actuals will still flow into controlling line item table that is COEP. There are no changes to the header tables.

    Data model – Universal Journal
    • The table here provides the list of tables merged in ACDOCA
    • These tables are converted to views

    Asset Accounting

    • ANEK: Document Header Asset Posting
    • ANEP: Asset Line Items
    • ANEA: Asset Line Items For Proportional Values
    • ANLP: Asset Periodic Values
    • ANLC: Asset Value Fields

    Material Ledger

    • MLHD: Material Ledger Document: Header
    • MLIT: Material Ledger Document: Items
    • MLPP: Material Ledger Document: Posting Periods and Quantities
    • MLPPF: Material Ledger Document: Field Groups (Posting Periods)
    • MLCR: Material Ledger Document: Currencies and Values
    • MLCRF: Material Ledger Document: Field Groups (Currencies)
    • MLCD: Material Ledger: Summarization Record (from Documents)
    • CKMI1: Index for Accounting Documents for Material

    CO and Account based COPA Tables

    • COEP: CO Object: Line Items (by Period)

    FI Tables

    • BSEG: FI Line Items
    • FAGLFLEXA: FI Line Items
    Compatibility views

    Compatibility views

    Compatibility views

    • Views are virtual tables where values are updated dynamically during run time
    • Compatibility views are created for following types of changes with same name or different names
      • Existing tables merged into single table such as COSPANEK
      • Existing tables replaced with views such as BSISFAGLFLEXA
      • Existing views replaced by compatibility views
    • Proxy objects are assigned to such tables/ views
    • Compatibility views are CDS views which are processed in Eclipse
    • Custom ABAP programs can continue to read data via select statements from impacted tables after upgrade e.g. COEP
    Back-up tables

    Back-up tables

    • Back-up tables are created during S/4HANA conversion to store historic data for tables converted into views e.g. BSISCOSS
    • CO module backup table nomenclature is xxxx_BAK e.g. COSSBAK
    • FI module back up table nomenclature is xxxx_BCK e.g. BSISBCK
    Data model – bank accounts

    Data model – bank accounts

    • New application for manging bank accounts
    • New tables for bank accounts
    Index & aggregate tables in FI/CO

    Index & aggregate tables in FI/CO

    • Aggregates and index tables are replaced by views e.g. BSISCOSS
    • These views read data from line item table ACDOCA
    • In custom objects, it is no longer possible to write/ edit data directly in these tables
    • In ABAP programming, View on view is not possible. Hence, custom programs using view on these tables would need code remediation
    Index & aggregate tables in FI/CO

    List of aggregate tables in FICO replaced by views

    • GLT0: G/L account master record transaction figures
    • GLT3: Summary data preparation for consolidation
    • FAGLFLEXT: General Ledger: totals
    • KNC1: Customer master (transaction figures)
    • LFC1: Vendor master (transaction figures)
    • KNC3: Customer master (special G/L transaction figures)
    • LFC3: Vendor master (special G/L transaction figures)
    • COSS: CO object: Cost totals for internal postings
    • COSP: CO object: Cost totals for external postings

    List of index tables in FICO replaced by views

    • BSIS: Secondary index for G/L accounts
    • BSAS: Secondary index for G/L accounts (cleared item)
    • BSID: Secondary index for customers
    • BSAD: Secondary index for customers (cleared item)
    • BSIK: Secondary index for vendors
    • BSAK: Secondary index for vendors (cleared items)
    • BSIM: Secondary index for material
    • FAGLBSIS: Secondary index for G/L accounts
    • FAGLBSAS: Secondary index for G/L Accounts (cleared items)
    • These tables are converted to views.
    • These views now read data from A C D O C A.
    Modification in views

    Modification in views

    • Old views replaced by either equivalent code or a compatibility view e.g. V_COSP_ABKPF_BSAD
    • Refer to OSS note# 1976487 for details
    • Custom object needs to be modified if impacted views are used
    Impact of data model modification

    General Ledger

    • Data updated in BKPF and ACDOCA
    • GL data for joint venture accounting and public sector stored in ACDOCA
    • Single source of reporting for all financial data with details such as asset accounting, inventory valuation, CO posting
    • New and single transaction for carry forward of GL, AR, AP, AA balances


    • CO actual data updated in BKPFCOBK and ACDOCA
    • Secondary cost elements are created as GL accounts
    • Functionality reconciliation ledger/ real time reconciliation is obsolete
    • Possible to enter ledger in CO repost transaction

    Profitability Analysis Account based

    • Account based COPA actual data updated in BKF and ACDOCA
    • Mandatory activation of account based CO-PA, costing based COPA can still be used
    • No need to define custom fields for P&L reporting in FICOPA characteristics can be used for P&L reporting

    Asset Accounting

    • Data updated in BKPF and ACDOCA
    • Statistical data stored in FAAT_DOC_IT
    • Plan data stored in FAAT_PLAN_VALUES
    • All depreciation areas post to ledger in real time will asset details, leading or non-leading
    • Transaction for FI-AA reconciliation obsolete
    • No longer possible to post assets without impacting general ledger such as legacy asset transfer, reset of asset GL accounts
    • New transaction for legacy asset transfer which is integrated with universal journal
    • All postings in asset accounting is posted to GL in real time, no periodic posting
    • Possible to have ledger specific postings from asset accounting

    Bank Account

    • New application to manage bank accounts Bank Account Management with enhanced features
    • New tables replacing old tables

    Material Ledger and Inventory Valuation

    • Data updated in BKPFCOKB and ACDOCA
    • Mandatory activation of material ledger for inventory valuation for S/4HANA, this is not required in S/4HANA finance, actual costing is optimal
    • Below mentioned tables for inventory valuation are used for storing master data attributes, transactions data is stored in universal journal and material ledger for SALKV
      • SALKV is used to store moving average price when price control is S
      • Possible to deactivate update of moving average price in material master when price is ‘S’ in S/4HANA. This feature is not available in S/4HANA Finance
    Impact of data model modification

    Impact of data model modification

    • Re-design existing reports to get the benefits of universal journal
    • Simplified chart of accounts due to FI-CO reconciliation
    • Transform business processes based on simplified data model
    Impact of data model modification

    Custom objects

    • All edit/update lines in custom code to be removed for tables which has become view
    • ‘View on View’ is not possible in ABAP. If aggregate/ index tables have been used as view on those tables, ABAP code needs modification
    • All fields in ACDOCA table is not same as of GL line item, field name may need to be modified

    Legacy data

    • Back-up tables created for legacy data
    • During simple finance migration, old data is transferred to back-up tables
    • Views are reading data from back-up tables also


    • Reports can be simplified due to new data model, no need of multiple tables and join
    • Reports can be enhanced with additional details as line item tables are used for reporting
    • Custom reposts are created based on CDS views with functional logic defined in CDS views to enhance performance


    • Reduction in future rate growth of data as aggregate/ index tables are replaced with views


    • Reconciliation between various FICO components not required
    • Single source of truth as FICO architecture based on single table (Universal journal)
    Course summary

    This course explains,

    • Datamodel in SAP S/4HANA
    • Key chanages in SAP S/4HANA Finance data model when compared with ECC
    • Impact of data model changes on SAP Finance submodules
    • Impact of datamodel cahanges on custom objects,legacy data,reports and sizing.
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